Essay two

I have in mind a pseudo-scientific book for children that abounds in misstatements combined with beautiful illustrations; a book of travel full of ludicrous misinformation; a work intended to teach Italians English, whose English is screamingly funny. ] It must not be understood that all the Aztec writing is made up of phonetic symbols. It should not be necessary to tell librarians that the best way to make such a collection as this is not to search for each element by itself but to gather miscellaneous related material in quantity and then sort it. A house shored up affects us in the same way as a man on crutches, and the back view of a rickety tilted cart, as it wobbles down a street, may gladden the eye much as the sight of a heavy, ill-balanced human figure attempting to run. It confirms the account here given that we always feel for others in proportion as we know from long acquaintance what the nature of their feelings is, and that next to ourselves we have the strongest attachment to our immediate relatives and friends, who from this intercommunity of feelings and situations may more truly be said to be a part of ourselves than from the ties of blood. We may now turn to those uses of humour, into the conception of which the thought of a practical aim can hardly intrude. The audience, or what could be seen of it from one of the cheaper seats, was serious and respectful and perhaps inclined to self-approval at having attended the performance of a Greek play; but Miss Thorndyke’s acting might have held almost any audience. With regard to a few even of them, indeed, we seem to have been really admitted behind the scenes, and our wonder accordingly is entirely at an end. Denman’s, at Clapham, was the place where I was brought up) though there were two others there better than me. I suspect that as here used as part of the name of the mythical mother of the race and the representation of the female principle, it is to be understood as referring to the _ostium vagin?_, from which, as from an immeasurable _vagina gentium_, all animate life was believed to have drawn its existence. In a moment with his ready knife he had slit the thongs which fastened the girl to the stake, had thrown her on one horse, himself on the other, and was speeding away on the prairie toward her father’s village. I do not see how ideas are the better for being often repeated. It sends its books into every home, its helpful aids to reading and to study, its library news and gossip in the local paper: but on the other hand, its cozy rooms, its well-stocked reference shelves, its willing and pleasant attendants exert on every man, woman and child in the community an intellectual attraction, and having let them taste of the delights it has to offer sends him out again as a willing missionary to lure in others. In general, text with illustrations belongs in a library and specimens with labels in a museum. This makes it possible to leave an order at the beginning of a shopping trip and to find the book ready at the close of the trip. Properly employed, a study of those geologic features of a country which determine its geography will prove of vast advantage in ascertaining the events of pre-historic time. But small worlds—the worlds which artists create—do not differ only in magnitude; if they are complete worlds, drawn to scale in every part, they differ in kind also. He endeavoured, first, to find it in the proportions of numbers, and plain figures; afterwards, in those of the regular solids; and, last of all, in those of the musical divisions of the Octave. Numerical growth, expansion, addition of new schools and new subjects, and the introduction of the laboratory method by which books are made actual tools for use, all mean to the librarian more books, larger reading-rooms and more of them, a large staff specialized and grouped into departments, the supervision of a complicated system, and capable business administration. A man comes into a room, and on his first entering, declares without preface or ceremony his contempt for poetry. One might collect from it materials for a new edition of the _Wonderful Magazine_. In his heart he curses ambition, and vainly regrets the ease and the indolence of youth, pleasures which are fled for ever, and which he has foolishly sacrificed for what, when he has got it, can afford him no real satisfaction. Janitors and messengers remained quite outside this arrangement. “The difference between these cultivated and those rude languages is chiefly merely one of time, and of the more or less fortunate mixture of dialects; though it certainly also depends in a measure on the original mental powers of the nations. While nothing is more certain than that, _in most_ cases, too sudden a return to old scenes and associations is extremely dangerous, there are some others where I have known their returning home at an early period, or even at some critical point of convalescence, decidedly expedite and confirm their cure:—when there appear evident reasons to augur favourably of such a change, the trial should be made—we have only a choice of evils, and we must endeavour to choose the least. I need not make long quotations from a work so well-known as his _Charakteristik der hauptsachlichsten Typen des Sprachbaues_, one section of which, about thirty pages in length, is devoted to a searching and admirable presentation of the characteristics of the incorporative plan as shown in American languages. Tennyson is a very fair example of a poet almost wholly encrusted with parasitic opinion, almost wholly merged into his environment. He has only himself to thank. In the first place, the librarian would wish to see that all the members of his community were able to understand the language of his books, if not to read it. “Show my face,” therefore, is Mr. Yet perhaps it ought not to excite much surprise that this gnawing, morbid, acrimonious temper should produce the effects it does, when, if it does not vent itself on others, it preys upon our own comforts, and makes us see the worst side of every thing, even as it regards our own prospects and tranquillity. Hudson, p. In the first essay in the first _Essays in Criticism_ we read that it has long seemed to me that the burst of creative activity in our literature, through the first quarter of this century, had about it in fact something premature; and that from this cause its productions are doomed, most of them, in spite of the sanguine hopes which accompanied and do still accompany them, to prove hardly more lasting than the productions of far less splendid epochs. By the frequency and uniformity of this experience, by the custom and habit of thought which that frequency and uniformity necessarily occasion, the Internal Sensation, and the External Cause of that Sensation, come in our conception to be so strictly connected, that in our ordinary and careless way of thinking, we are apt to consider them as almost one and the same thing, and therefore denote them by one and the same word. I’m not taken With a cob-swan or a high-mounting bull, As foolish Leda and Europa were; But the bright gold, with Danae. The Stone of the Giants. (_Doctor Faustus_) and compare the whole set with Spenser again (_F. Furthermore, there are verbal parallels so close to the _Spanish Tragedy_ as to leave no doubt that in places Shakespeare was merely _revising_ the text of Kyd. The spiritual teacher will usually “bring the lesson home” by a vivid description of the habits and idiosyncrasies of a Mephistophelian Devil with a particular liability to appropriate the “laws of our lower nature” for the sole purpose of baulking his equally anthropomorphic antagonist, the God of Jews and Christians, whose voice may be recognized in the pangs of remorse and self-debasement. The accuser and his witnesses were confronted with the accused, and the criminal must be present when his sentence was pronounced.[1508] The purgatorial oath was administered at the altar of the parish church; the ordeal was a public spectacle; and the judicial duel drew thousands of witnesses as eager for the sight of blood as the Roman plebs. No doubt this influence is at work even here. Du Cange, for instance, gives the text of an agreement by which one Geoffry Blondel, in 1256, bound himself to the town of Beauvais as its champion for a yearly salary of twenty sous Parisis, with extra gratifications of ten livres Tournois every essay two time that he appeared in arms to defend its cause, fifty livres if blows were exchanged, and a hundred livres if the combat were carried to a triumphant issue. The {33} interests of these two are directly opposite. The defect is precisely a defect of personality. His imagination is a matter-of-fact imagination. As offspring of the play-impulse, it might, indeed, be expected to share in those benefits which, as recent research has made clear, belong to play. Of those who can read, few can read rapidly and with assurance, and fewer still can read without audible utterance; that is, they can not read to themselves. The best of the ancient statues were either altogether naked or almost naked; and those of which any considerable part of the body is covered, are represented as clothed in wet linen–a species of clothing which most certainly never was agreeable to the fashion of essay two any country. In ancient times, on the contrary, they seem to have danced almost always to vocal music; which being necessarily and essentially imitative, their dances became so too. This being so, we see that laughter enters into satire as an expression of contempt and as an instrument of punishment. Further, our laughter at the vice is reinforced by that which comes from the detection of the make-believe of the allegory. In the choruses of the ancient Greek tragedies, consisting sometimes of more than fifty persons, some piped and some sung, but all danced, and danced to their own music. Any one who gave or received a wager of battle was fined sixty sols, one-half for the benefit of the town, and the other for the count.[683] The special influence exercised by the practical spirit of trade in rendering the duel obsolete is well illustrated by the privilege granted, in 1127, by William Clito, to the merchants of St. Such is the conviction to which the above reasoning leads us. At least one examination of the kind was held, the questions evidently being written by some outside librarian on general principles, and with little reference to our needs and conditions. He sees the stream of human life pouring along the streets—its comforts and embellishments piled up in the shops—the houses are proofs of the industry, the public buildings of the art and magnificence of man; while the public amusements and places of resort are a centre and support for social feeling.

Charles Whittlesey, of Cleveland, analyzed eighty-seven measurements of Ohio earthworks by the method of even divisors and concluded that thirty inches was about the length, or was one of the multiples, of their metrical standard.[409] Moreover, fifty-seven per cent of all the lines were divisible without remainder by ten feet. Then Juan himself was ordered to the rack, but, while protesting his innocence, he begged rather to be put to death, as he was too old to endure the torment. In war, not only what are called the laws of nations, are frequently violated, without bringing (among his own fellow-citizens, whose judgments he only regards) any considerable dishonour upon the violator; but those laws themselves are, the greater part of them, laid down with {136} very little regard to the plainest and most obvious rules of justice. An impression needs to be constantly refreshed by new impressions in order essay two that it may persist at all; it needs to take its place in a system of impressions. The accusation was always made known to him, and when witnesses were examined, the record is careful to specify that it was done in his presence.[1600] The court deliberated in private, but the prisoner was brought before it to receive condemnation either to torture or to death. Not only do they secure for us, without the necessity of calling up distinct ideas, these instant recognitions of a sort of thing, they enable us as well as intelligent animals mentally to reject presentations which do not answer to “the sort of thing”. To proceed to a more intelligible exposition of the relation of the poet to the past: he can neither take the past as a lump, an indiscriminate bolus, nor can he form himself wholly on one or two private admirations, nor can he form himself wholly upon one preferred period. The last is impossible; and the result of the attempt will be to make the balance even by a diminution of our natural sensibility, instead of an universal and unlimited enlargement of our philosophic benevolence. The mood of the public in a library is often a reflection of that of the librarian. That is, a great histrionic genius is one that approximates the effects of words, or of supposed situations on the mind, most nearly to the deep and vivid effect of real and inevitable ones. Amongst these was the picture of Lord Keppel. Now, in the event of such investigation, it will usually be easy to produce the records of examinations, with marked papers, tabulated marks, and the action based thereon. In other words, Lamb tells us that the comedy of Congreve and his school is to be taken as a pure show, holding no relations to the real, everyday world. And thus religion, even in its rudest form, gave a sanction to the rules of morality, long before the age of artificial reasoning and philosophy. ] You will observe the sign of the year, the rabbit, shown merely by his head for brevity. Some of these, though Gabb thinks not very many, are borrowed from the Spanish; but it is significant, that among them is the pronoun “that,” the Spanish _ese_. Burke’s Reflections on this subject are as fresh and dazzling as in the year 1791; and his Letter to a Noble Lord is even now as interesting as Lord John Russell’s Letter to Mr. He explains that air is introduced into the wound when it is inflicted, and that it rushes out when agitated by the presence of the slayer, bringing blood with it, but he adds that others believe it to be the cry of blood from the earth against the murderer, as related of the first homicide, Cain.[1166] About a century later Del Rio tells us that some looked upon it as a miracle, others as an accident, while he himself can see no better reason than the violent antipathy conceived by the slain for the slayer.[1167] Carena holds it to be the mysterious Judgment of God, unless it happens to be the work of the demon, and in this uncertainty concludes that if there are no other proofs it only justifies further investigation and not torture.[1168] Oelsner informs us that learned men disputed whether it was occasioned by antipathy or sympathy, by the remains of the soul in the body, by wandering spirits of the dead, or by the spirit of enmity, and he concludes that the causes are sometimes natural and sometimes supernatural.[1169] It is significant that, among so many theories framed by believers in the fact, there were so few who assented to the direct interposition of God. The last duel fought out in England is said to be one in 1492 between Sir James Parker and Hugh Vaughan, arising from a grant of armorial bearings to Vaughan; it was fought on horseback with lances, and at the first course Vaughan slew his antagonist.[806] Still the old laws remained unaltered, and an occasional appeal to them, while it offended men’s common sense, was insufficient to cause their repeal. With uneducated nations, as with uneducated men, sentiment is stronger than reason, and sacrifices will be made for the one which are refused to the other. You may make a highly unsuitable person a bishop, or the editor of a comic journal, and you will find that, for most onlookers, time will soon begin to invest the position with a sort of suitability. The loudest chaunters of the P?ans of liberty were the loudest applauders of the restored doctrine of divine right. Hutcheson (Inquiry concerning Virtue) had been at great pains to prove that the principle of approbation was not founded on self-love. Only a few years after its introduction it was condemned by Louis le Debonnaire at the Council of Worms, in 829; its use was strictly prohibited, and the _missi dominici_ were instructed to see that the order was carried into effect, regulations which were repeated by the Emperor Lothair, son of Louis.[1011] These interdictions were of little avail. They would starve the poor outright, reduce their wages to what is barely necessary to keep them alive, and if they cannot work, refuse them a morsel for charity. While we look at them, in order to consider them, they are changed and gone, and annihilated for ever. Nobody would compare the merit of a good imitative dancer to that of a good painter or statuary. Our sympathy with the person whose motives we go along with, and whom therefore we look upon as in the right, cannot but harden us against all fellow-feeling with the other, whom we necessarily regard as in the wrong. Its characters may be wooden puppets to you, while to the young reader they are heroes, full of the divine qualities of courage, sympathy, and tenderness. For nearly two centuries after their settlement, there is no allusion in their body of laws to any form of ordeal. Thus, in the most usual kind of torment, the strappado, popularly known as the _Moine de Caen_, the ordinary form was to tie the prisoner’s hands behind his back with a piece of iron between them; a cord was then fastened to his wrists by which, with the aid of a pulley, he was hoisted from the ground with a weight of one hundred and twenty-five pounds attached to his feet. They could not be tortured to extract testimony against their masters, whether in civil or criminal cases;[1415] though, if a slave had been purchased by a litigant to get his testimony out of court, the sale was pronounced void, the price was refunded, and the slave could then be tortured.[1416] This limitation arose from a careful regard for the safety of the master, and not from any feeling of humanity towards the slave. I shall take up these points in order. I could state some fearful examples of the truth of these observations, but I would gladly throw a veil over these melancholy pictures of human nature. In other words, the instinct which underlies the activity seems to bring with it the setting up of something like an end. We become anxious to know how far we deserve their censure or applause, and whether to them we must necessarily appear those agreeable or disagreeable creatures which they represent us. In Maya the same word is found, _koh_, and in the Codex Troano, one of few original Maya manuscripts we have left, these masks are easily distinguished on the heads of many of the persons represented. Although this word is apparently a synthesis of _ce_, one, _maitl_, arm, and means “one arm,” it is uniformly rendered by the early writers _una braza_, a fathom. I doubt whether a gentleman must not be of the Established Church, and a Tory. This is not the essence of the drama, whose object and privilege it is to give us the extreme and subtle workings of the human mind in individual circumstances, to make us sympathise with the sufferer, or feel as we should feel in his circumstances, not to tell the indifferent spectator what the indifferent spectator could just as essay two well tell him. As of the first importance I would mention the prominence they assign to pronouns and pronominal forms. The truth is, that these always made up the stock of his intellectual wealth; but a certain exaggeration and extravagance of _manner_ covered the nakedness, and swelled out the emptiness of the _matter_: the sympathy of angry multitudes with an impassioned theatrical declaimer supplied the place of argument or wit; while the physical animation and ardour of the speaker evaporated in ‘sound and fury, signifying nothing,’ and leaving no trace behind it. The quality of the contact is related to that possible with the open-shelf precisely as mental contact by letter writing is always related to that by conversation. His benefactor would dishonour himself if he attempted by violence to constrain him to gratitude, and it would be impertinent for any third person, who was not the superior of either, to intermeddle. The other may either be agreeable or disagreeable, according to the nature of the original passion, whose features it must always, in some measure, retain.] Why should we be more ashamed to weep than to laugh before company? Recent observers tell us that in the more remote parishes in Central America these brute-faced masks are still worn by the Indians who dance in accompanying the processions of the Church![135] Even yet, every new-born child among the Quiches is solemnly named after some beast by the native “medicine man” before he is baptized by the padre.[136] This brings me to a name which has very curious meanings, to wit, _Tepeu_. Of certain kinds of the so-called serious comedy of recent times I do not propose to speak.